The Ultimate Mobile Marketing Glossary

Welcome to our comprehensive Mobile Marketing Glossary, your ultimate resource for understanding key terms and concepts in the world of app marketing and advertising.

Whether you're a seasoned pro or a newcomer, this glossary offers clear, concise definitions to help you navigate the digital landscape. Explore essential terms, enhance your knowledge, and stay ahead in this dynamic field!

Table of Contents



A/B Testing

A method used to compare two versions of an app or ad to determine which performs better in achieving a specific goal. In this process, Version A is the control and Version B is the variation. For example, you might test two call-to-action buttons to see which leads to more user conversions, allowing data-driven decisions to optimize the app or ad performance.

Ad Mediation

A platform or service that allows app developers to manage multiple ad networks in a single interface, optimizing ad fill rates and maximizing revenue by dynamically selecting the best-performing ad network for each ad request. For example, an app developer might use an ad mediation platform like AdMob Mediation to integrate ads from various networks such as Facebook Audience Network, AdColony, and Unity Ads, ensuring the highest possible revenue from ad impressions.

Ad Network

A platform that facilitates the connection between advertisers and publishers to buy and sell ad space. Ad networks aggregate available advertising inventory from publishers and match it with the demand from advertisers. Examples of prominent ad networks include Google AdMob, Facebook Audience Network, and Unity Ads.

Ad Request

A call made by an app to an ad server to fetch an advertisement. This request includes parameters like device information, location, and user data to target the most relevant ad for the user. For example, when a user opens a mobile game, the game sends an ad request to the ad server, which then returns a targeted ad based on the user’s profile and location.

Ad Revenue

The income generated from displaying ads within an app. This can come from various ad formats such as banners, interstitials, video ads, and rewarded adsand is typically calculated based on metrics like CPM (Cost Per Mille), CPC (Cost Per Click), or CPA (Cost Per Action). For example, a mobile game might earn ad revenue from video ads shown between game levels and rewarded video ads that offer in-game currency for watching.

Ad Unit

A specific placement within an app designated for displaying ads. Each ad unit can have different formats and sizes, such as banners, interstitials, or video ads, tailored to fit different parts of the app interface. For example, a banner ad unit might be placed at the bottom of the app screen, while an interstitial ad unit appears between game levels.

Affiliate Marketing

A performance-based marketing strategy where affiliates earn a commission by promoting a product or service and driving conversions. Affiliates use unique tracking links to ensure their efforts are correctly attributed. For instance, a blog promoting a fitness app might earn a commission for each user who installs the app through their referral link.


Google’s mobile operating system, designed to power a diverse array of devices worldwide. Known for its flexibility and customization options, Android is the most widely used OS globally, supporting smartphones, tablets, smartwatches, and more.

API — Application Programming Interface

set of protocols, routines, and tools that enables different software applications to communicate and interact with each other seamlessly. APIs define the methods and data formats that applications can use to request and exchange information. For example, the Google Maps API allows developers to integrate Google Maps features and data into their applications, enhancing functionality and user experience.

App Clips

A lightweight version of an app that allows users to quickly access and interact with a portion of the app without needing to download the full version. App Clips are designed to provide a seamless, on-the-go experience for specific tasks or services. For example, a user might access an App Clip to quickly rent a scooter or pay for parking without installing the entire app.

App Engagement

The level of interaction and involvement a user has with an app, measured through metrics like session length, frequency of use, and in-app activities. High engagement indicates that users find the app valuable and are more likely to retain and convert. For example, an app with high engagement might see users logging in daily, spending significant time in the app, and frequently using its features.

App Launchers

Applications or interfaces that enable users to access and manage the apps on their devices. App launchers often offer customization features and are integral to the user experience on Android devices. For example, popular Android launchers like Nova Launcher and Microsoft Launcher allow users to personalize their home screens, app icons, and widgets.

App Retention

The ability of an app to retain its users over time. Retention is typically measured by the percentage of users who continue to use the app after a certain period, such as day 1, day 7, or day 30 post-install. High retention rates indicate user satisfaction and a well-functioning app. For instance, if an app has a 30-day retention rate of 40%, it means 40% of users are still using the app 30 days after installation.

App Store

A digital marketplace where users can browse, download, and install apps on their mobile devices. The two main app stores are Apple’s App Store for iOS devices and Google Play for Android devices. These platforms provide app developers with a channel to distribute their apps and users with a centralized location to find and download apps.

ARPU — Average Revenue Per User

A metric that calculates the average revenue generated per user over a specific period. It is calculated by dividing the total revenue by the total number of users. For instance, if an app generates $10,000 monthly from 2,000 users, the ARPU would be $5 ($10,000 / 2,000 users). This metric helps businesses understand the revenue contribution of each user.

ARPPU — Average Revenue Per Purchasing User

A metric that measures the average revenue generated by users who make purchases within an app. It provides insights into the spending habits of paying users and is calculated by dividing the total revenue by the number of purchasing users. For example, if an app earns $10,000 from 200 purchasing users, the ARPPU would be $50 ($10,000 / 200 users). This helps businesses understand and optimize their monetization strategies.

ASO — App Store Optimization

App store optimization is the process of enhancing an app’s visibility and ranking within an app store’s search results. This involves optimizing various elements such as the app’s title, keywords, description, and visuals (icons, screenshots, videos) to attract more downloads. Effective ASO increases an app’s discoverability and appeal to potential users.


The process of determining which marketing efforts are responsible for specific user actions, such as app installs, in-app purchases, or other conversions. Attribution tools track and link these actions back to the ads or campaigns that influenced them, providing valuable insights into the effectiveness of different marketing strategies and helping optimize future campaigns.

Attribution Window

The time frame during which a conversion can be attributed to a particular ad impression or click. Common attribution windows range from 24 hours to 30 days, depending on the campaign and goals. For example, if a user clicks on an ad and makes a purchase within a 7-day attribution window, the conversion is credited to that ad.



Bid Shading

A programmatic advertising technique used to reduce the cost of bids in first-price auctions. By using historical data and predictive algorithms, bid shading calculates the optimal bid price, often resulting in savings for advertisers. For example, if the highest bid in a first-price auction is $5, bid shading might suggest bidding $4.50 to win the auction while saving $0.50.

Branding vs. Performance

Branding campaigns focus on creating long-term recognition and loyalty by enhancing the overall image and awareness of a brand. In contrast, performance marketing aims at achieving specific, immediate goals such as user acquisition, sales, or other measurable actions. While branding builds a foundation for sustained growth, performance marketing drives short-term results and tangible metrics.


marketing approach that combines elements of both branding and performance marketing to achieve long-term brand awareness while also driving immediate, measurable results. This strategy ensures that while campaigns build and maintain the brand’s identity and recognition, they simultaneously focus on acquiring users, driving conversions, and generating sales. Brandformance aims to create a cohesive marketing effort that benefits from the strengths of both branding and performance metrics.

Burst Campaign

A marketing strategy that aims to quickly acquire a large number of users within a short timeframe. This approach is often used to boost app visibility and improve rankings in app stores, leveraging the increased activity to gain more organic downloads and attract attention from a broader audience.



CPA — Cost Per Action or Cost Per Acquisition

A pricing model where advertisers pay for each specified action, such as an app install, registration, or purchase, driven by their ad campaigns. For example, if an advertiser spends $1,000 on a campaign that generates 50 installs, the CPA is $20 ($1,000 / 50 installs).

CPAU — Cost Per Active User

Measures the cost to acquire an active user who engages with the app beyond the initial install. This metric helps assess the quality of users obtained through a campaign. For example, if a campaign costs $2,000 and results in 100 active users, the CPAU is $20 ($2,000 / 100 active users).

CPC — Cost Per Click

A pricing model where advertisers pay each time a user clicks on their ad. It is used to measure the effectiveness and cost-efficiency of ad campaigns. For example, if an advertiser spends $500 on a campaign that generates 200 clicks, the CPC is $2.50 ($500 / 200 clicks).

CPI — Cost Per Install or Cost Per Impression

CPI refers to the average cost of getting a user to download an app through an advertising campaign. For example, if an advertiser spends $1,500 on a campaign that results in 300 installs, the CPI is $5 ($1,500 / 300 installs).

CPL — Cost Per Lead

Measures the cost of generating a lead, such as a form submission or email signup, through a marketing campaign. For example, if a campaign costs $800 and generates 100 leads, the CPL is $8 ($800 / 100 leads).

CPM — Cost Per Thousand/Cost Per Mille

The cost of serving 1,000 ad impressions. This metric is used primarily in display advertising to price and measure the efficiency of ad campaigns. For example, if an advertiser spends $500 to serve 100,000 impressions, the CPM is $5 ($500 / 100).

CPPU — Cost Per Paying User

Calculates the cost of acquiring a user who makes in-app purchases. It is defined as the total marketing spend divided by the number of paying users acquired. For example, if a campaign costs $2,000 and results in 50 paying users, the CPPU is $40 ($2,000 / 50 users).

CPV — Cost Per View

A pricing model where advertisers pay each time a video ad is viewed. CPV campaigns may also include cost per completed view (CPCV) where payment is made only if the video is watched in its entirety. For example, if an advertiser spends $300 on a campaign that generates 1,000 video views, the CPV is $0.30 ($300 / 1,000 views).

CR — Conversion Rate

The percentage of users who complete a desired action, such as installing an app or making a purchase, after interacting with an ad. It is calculated by dividing the number of conversions by the number of ad impressions or clicks. For example, if an ad receives 10,000 impressions and results in 200 installs, the CR is 2% (200 / 10,000).

CRO — Conversion Rate Optimization

The process of improving a website or app to increase the percentage of visitors who complete desired actions. This can involve A/B testing, user experience enhancements, and optimizing landing pages.

Cross-Device Tracking

The ability to track user interactions and behaviors across multiple devices, such as smartphones, tablets, and desktops. Cross-device tracking helps marketers understand the complete user journey and deliver more personalized and consistent experiences. For example, a user might see an ad on their phone and later convert on their desktop, and cross-device tracking would attribute the conversion to the original mobile ad.


Refers to marketing strategies that target users across multiple devices and platforms, such as mobile, web, and desktop, to ensure a consistent and comprehensive user experience.

CTA — Call to Action

A prompt in an advertisement that encourages the user to take a specific action, such as “Download Now,” “Sign Up,” or “Learn More.”

CTR — Click-Through Rate

The ratio of users who click on an ad to the number of total users who view the ad. It is expressed as a percentage and indicates the effectiveness of an ad in generating clicks. For example, if an ad receives 10,000 impressions and 300 clicks, the CTR is 3% (300 / 10,000).

Churn Rate

The percentage of users who stop using an app within a given period. High churn rates indicate issues with user satisfaction, engagement, or app quality, and reducing churn is crucial for long-term growth. For example, if an app has 1,000 users at the beginning of the month and 300 leave by the end, the monthly churn rate is 30% (300 / 1,000).

Click Fraud

The practice of artificially inflating the number of clicks on an ad, often through automated bots or deceptive tactics, to generate illegitimate revenue. Click fraud can distort performance metrics and waste advertising budgets. For example, a competitor might use bots to click on an advertiser’s ads, depleting their budget without generating genuine interest or conversions.

Companion Banner

A banner ad that appears alongside other ad formats, such as video ads, to reinforce the message and increase visibility. Companion banners provide additional branding opportunities and enhance the overall ad experience. For example, a companion banner might appear next to a video ad, displaying consistent branding and messaging.

Consent Management Platform (CMP)

tool used to manage user consent for data collection and processing in compliance with privacy regulations like GDPR and CCPA. CMPs ensure that users are informed about data usage and have the ability to grant or withdraw consent. For example, a website might use a CMP to display a consent banner where users can manage their privacy preferences.

Contextual Advertising

A type of advertising where ads are displayed based on the content of the surrounding webpage or app. This method ensures that ads are relevant to the user’s current interests and activities, improving engagement and effectiveness. For example, an ad for running shoes might appear on a fitness blog or app.

Creative Optimization

The process of continuously testing and refining ad creatives to improve their performance. Creative optimization involves experimenting with different images, headlines, calls to action, and formats to identify the most effective combinations. For example, an advertiser might run A/B tests on different ad designs to see which generates the highest click-through rates.

Customer Acquisition Cost (CAC)

The total cost of acquiring a new customer, including expenses related to marketing, advertising, and sales efforts. CAC is calculated by dividing the total acquisition costs by the number of new customers acquired during a specific period. For example, if a company spends $10,000 on marketing and acquires 100 new customers, the CAC is $100 ($10,000/100).

Customer Lifetime Value (CLV)

The total revenue a business can expect to earn from a customer throughout their relationship. CLV helps businesses understand the long-term value of their customers and inform strategies for acquisition, retention, and monetization. For example, if a customer spends $50 per month and remains active for 2 years, the CLV is $1,200 ($50 x 24 months).



DAU — Daily Active Users

The number of unique users who engage with an app on a daily basis. This metric is crucial for understanding user engagement and retention, as it reflects how frequently users interact with the app on a day-to-day basis.

Data Enrichment

The process of enhancing existing data by adding additional information from external sources. Data enrichment helps businesses gain deeper insights into their customers, improve targeting, and create more personalized marketing campaigns. For example, adding demographic data to a customer database can help tailor marketing messages to specific age groups or income levels.

Deep Linking

technique that uses URLs to link directly to specific pages or content within an apprather than just opening the app’s home screen. Deep linking improves the user experience by providing direct access to relevant content and can boost engagement and conversions. For example, a user clicking on a promotional email link might be taken directly to a product page within the app.

Device Fragmentation

The existence of multiple versions of hardware and software platforms used simultaneously. This can complicate app development and testing, particularly in the Android ecosystem, where a wide variety of devices and OS versions are in use. Managing device fragmentation is essential to ensure a consistent user experience across all devices.

DMP — Data Management Platform

A centralized platform that collects, organizes, and analyzes large sets of data from various sources. DMPs help marketers create targeted advertising campaigns by leveraging data insights. They aggregate data from different touchpoints to build comprehensive user profiles and optimize marketing efforts.

DSP — Demand-Side Platform

A system that allows advertisers to buy digital ad inventory across multiple ad exchanges through a single interface. DSPs like The Trade Desk and Google Marketing Platform automate the ad buying process, enabling real-time bidding and optimization of campaigns to maximize reach and effectiveness.

Dynamic Creative Optimization (DCO)

An advanced form of programmatic advertising where ad creatives are dynamically generated and optimized in real-time based on user data and context. DCO enables highly personalized and relevant ad experiences that can improve performance and engagement. For example, a DCO campaign might show different product images and offers to users based on their browsing history and preferences.



eCPM — Effective Cost Per Mille

A metric that standardizes earnings or costs per 1,000 impressions, providing a consistent measure of ad performance across different pricing models (CPC, CPI, etc.). It is calculated by dividing total earnings by total impressions in thousands. For example, if an ad campaign earns $5,000 from 2,000,000 impressions, the eCPM is $2.50 ($5,000 / 2,000).

Earnings Per Click (EPC)

A metric used in affiliate marketing to measure the average earnings generated per click on an affiliate link. EPC is calculated by dividing the total earnings by the number of clicks, providing insights into the profitability of affiliate campaigns. For example, if an affiliate earns $500 from 1,000 clicks, the EPC is $0.50 ($500/1,000).


The level of user interaction and involvement with an app is measured through metrics like session length, frequency of use, and in-app purchases. High engagement indicates that users find the app valuable and are more likely to become loyal customers.

Event Tracking

The process of monitoring and recording specific user actions within an app or website, such as button clicks, page views, or purchases. Event tracking helps businesses understand user behavior and measure the effectiveness of their marketing efforts. For example, tracking the number of users who add items to their cart can provide insights into shopping behavior and identify potential drop-off points.



First-Party Data

Data collected directly from users by a company, including website activity, purchase history, and user preferences. This data is highly valuable for targeted marketing and personalization because it is directly gathered and more accurate, helping businesses understand and engage their audience more effectively.

First-Touch Attribution

An attribution model that assigns 100% of the credit for a conversion to the first interaction a user had with a brand or campaign. First-touch attribution helps identify the channels and campaigns that initiate user journeys. For example, if a user first interacts with a brand through a social media ad and later makes a purchase, the conversion is attributed to the social media ad.


A business model where the app is free to download and use, but users can purchase premium features, content, or virtual goods within the app. This model allows users to experience the basic features at no cost while offering advanced features or additional content for a fee. Popular apps like Spotify and Candy Crush successfully use this model to monetize their user base.

Frequency Capping

A technique used in digital advertising to limit the number of times a specific ad is shown to the same user within a given time frame. This helps prevent ad fatigue and ensures that the user experience is not disrupted by seeing the same ad repeatedly. For example, if an advertiser sets a frequency cap of three impressions per user per day, the ad will not be shown to the same user more than three times in one day.



GAID — Google Advertising Identifier

Google’s unique device identifier used for tracking and advertising purposes on Android devices. It helps marketers measure campaign performance and user engagement by providing anonymized data that can link user behavior to specific ad interactions.


The incorporation of game-like elements into non-game contexts to engage users and motivate them to complete tasks. Examples include earning points, receiving badges, and climbing leaderboards. These elements can make the user experience more enjoyable and increase user engagement and retention.


location-based marketing technique that uses GPS or RFID technology to create a virtual boundary around a specific geographic area. When users enter or exit this area, they can receive targeted messages, offers, or ads relevant to their location. For example, a retail store might use geo-fencing to send a discount offer to users who enter a nearby shopping mall.



Header Bidding

An advanced programmatic advertising technique that allows publishers to offer inventory to multiple ad exchanges simultaneously before making calls to their ad servers. Header bidding can increase competition and yield higher CPMs for publishers. For example, by implementing header bidding, a publisher might receive bids from multiple demand sources, ensuring they get the best possible price for their ad inventory.

Hybrid App

A mobile application that combines elements of both native and web apps. These apps are written using web technologies like HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, and then wrapped in a native container that allows them to be installed and run on a mobile device like a native app. Hybrid apps can access device features through plugins, providing a balance between the performance of native apps and the flexibility of web apps. For example, the mobile version of the Twitter app is a hybrid app. It uses web technologies for much of its functionality but is packaged in a native container to leverage device-specific features like push notifications.


An advanced advertising strategy that involves using detailed user data to create highly specific audience segments. This allows advertisers to deliver personalized ads that are more likely to resonate with the target audience. Hyper-targeting leverages information such as user behavior, interests, demographics, and location to refine audience segments.




IDFA — Identifier for Advertisers

A unique identifier assigned to iOS devices for advertising purposes. IDFA allows advertisers to track user interactions with ads and measure the effectiveness of their campaigns while respecting user privacy. However, with the introduction of iOS 14.5, Apple has significantly limited access to IDFA through its App Tracking Transparency (ATT) framework. Users must now explicitly opt-in to allow apps to track them, declining IDFA availability. In response, Apple has promoted its SKAdNetwork, a privacy-preserving attribution framework that provides aggregated data on app installs and ad performance without revealing user-level information.

Impression Fraud

The practice of generating fake ad impressions, often through bots or other deceptive means, to inflate metrics and earn illegitimate revenue. Impression fraud can distort campaign performance data and waste advertising budgets. For example, a fraudulent publisher might use bots to generate thousands of fake impressions, misleading advertisers about the reach and effectiveness of their ads.

In-App Advertising

The placement of ads within a mobile app to generate revenue for the app developer. In-app advertising can include various formats such as banners, interstitials, rewarded videos, and native ads, providing multiple monetization opportunities. For example, a free mobile game might show rewarded video ads that offer in-game rewards for watching.

In-App Purchase (IAP)

transaction made within a mobile app that allows users to buy additional content, features, or virtual goods. IAPs are a common monetization strategy for free-to-download apps, offering users enhanced experiences or premium content. For example, a mobile game might offer in-app purchases for extra lives, special items, or new levels, enabling users to enhance their gameplay while generating revenue for the developer.


A marketing strategy where users are rewarded for completing certain actions, such as installing an app or watching a video ad. This approach can quickly drive high volumes of installs and engagement by offering incentives like in-app currency, discounts, or access to premium content.

Install Attribution

The process of determining which marketing efforts led to an app installation. Install attribution helps marketers understand the effectiveness of their campaigns and optimize their strategies to drive more installs. For example, an app developer might use an attribution tool like AppsFlyer to track which ads and channels are driving the most installs.


Full-screen ads that appear at natural transition points within an app, such as between levels in a game. These ads typically require user interaction, like closing the ad, before they can return to the app, often leading to higher engagement rates compared to banner ads.

Interstitial Video

Full-screen video ads that appear at natural transition points within an app, such as between levels in a game. Interstitial videos typically require the user to watch for a few seconds before they can close the ad, offering high visibility and engagement. For example, a gaming app might display an interstitial video ad between game levels, capturing the user’s attention during a break in gameplay.


Apple’s mobile operating system used on devices such as iPhone, iPad, and iPod Touch. Known for its smooth user experience, robust security features, and consistent performance across devices, iOS provides a stable and secure platform for apps and users.


LBS — Location-Based Services

Services that utilize a device’s geographic location to provide relevant content or services. These can include targeted advertising, local recommendations, navigation, and other location-specific functionalities. For example, a retail app might use LBS to send special offers to users when they are near a store.

Lifetime Engagement Value

A metric that combines customer lifetime value (CLV) with engagement metrics to provide a comprehensive view of a user’s overall value to the app. Lifetime engagement value helps businesses understand the long-term impact of user engagement on revenue. For example, an app might calculate lifetime engagement value by combining a user’s in-app purchases, subscription payments, and ad interactions over time.

Lookback Window

The period during which a conversion can be attributed to a specific ad interaction, such as a click or an impression. This window helps determine the effectiveness of marketing efforts by linking user actions to previous ad exposures. For instance, if a user clicks on an ad and makes a purchase within a 7-day lookback window, the conversion is attributed to that ad, providing insights into the ad’s impact on driving sales.

LTV — Lifetime Value

The total revenue a user is expected to generate throughout their entire time using an app. LTV is a crucial metric for determining how much a company can afford to spend on acquiring new users. For example, if a user spends $10 monthly and remains active for ten months, the LTV is $100 ($10 x 10 months). This metric helps in understanding the long-term value of users and planning marketing investments accordingly.




MAU — Monthly Active Users

The number of unique users who engage with an app at least once within a given month. MAU is a key metric for assessing long-term user engagement and growth, helping developers and marketers understand the app’s active user base and retention rates.

MMP — Mobile Measurement Partner

A third-party service that provides attribution, analytics, and reporting for mobile user acquisition (UA) campaigns. MMPs help track the effectiveness of marketing efforts by measuring app installs, in-app events, and other user actions. Examples include Adjust, AppsFlyer, and Branch.

MNO — Mobile Network Operator

A company that provides wireless communication services to users. MNOs manage the infrastructure and operations required for mobile connectivity, offering services like voice calls, text messaging, and data plans. Examples include Verizon, AT&T, and T-Mobile.

Mobile Marketing Automation (MMA)

The use of software and technology to automate and optimize mobile marketing efforts. MMA can include automated messaging, campaign management, user segmentation, and analytics, helping businesses improve efficiency and effectiveness. For example, a retail app might use MMA to send personalized push notifications based on user behavior and preferences.

Mobile Web

Browser-based internet services accessed via a mobile device. Unlike native apps, mobile web content is viewed through a web browser such as Chrome or Safari. Mobile ad placements are available both on mobile web and in-app environments, providing diverse opportunities for advertisers to reach their audience.


The process of generating revenue from an app through various methods, such as in-app purchases, subscriptions, and advertising. Effective monetization strategies are essential for app developers to sustain and grow their business. Examples include offering premium features, displaying ads, or selling virtual goods within the app.

Multivariate Testing

A testing method that evaluates multiple variables simultaneously to determine their impact on a specific outcome. Multivariate testing helps marketers understand how different elements of an ad or webpage interact and which combinations perform best. For example, a marketer might test different headlines, images, and calls to action on a landing page to find the most effective combination.




Native Ads

Ad formats that seamlessly integrate with the app’s content and design, offering a less intrusive and more engaging user experience. These ads match the surrounding content’s look, feel, and function, making them less disruptive to users. Examples include sponsored content, in-feed ads, and recommendation widgets. This approach often leads to higher engagement rates and better user interaction than traditional banner ads.

Non-Skippable Ads

Video advertisements that users must watch in full before they can access their desired content. These ads are typically short, ranging from 6 to 15 seconds, and are designed to ensure that the entire message reaches the audience. Non-skippable ads often appear before, during, or after video content.




OEM — Original Equipment Manufacturer

In the context of mobile traffic, OEM refers to companies that manufacture mobile devices and pre-install software or apps on these devices before they reach consumers. OEM mobile traffic involves user interactions and app usage that originate from these pre-installed apps. This type of traffic is valuable for app developers and marketers because it ensures their apps are present on devices straight out of the box, often leading to higher engagement and usage rates. Examples of OEMs in the mobile industry include Samsung, Huawei, and Xiaomi.


The process of enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of marketing campaigns by leveraging data and analytics to refine strategies and tactics. Optimization involves continuous testing, analysis, and adjustments to improve performance metrics such as conversion rates, click-through rates, and return on investment.

Organic Installs

App installs that occur naturally without direct advertising efforts, often resulting from app store searches, word of mouth, or content marketing. Organic installs are valuable as they typically indicate genuine interest and engagement from users, leading to higher retention rates and lifetime value.

OS — Operating System

The software platform that manages hardware and software resources on a device, providing a user interface and enabling applications to run. Examples include Android, iOS, Windows, and Blackberry. The OS plays a crucial role in determining the functionality and user experience of a device.

OS Fragmentation

The presence of multiple versions of an operating system being used simultaneously. This is especially prevalent in the Android ecosystem, where a wide variety of devices run different OS versions. OS fragmentation can complicate app development and testing, requiring developers to ensure compatibility across various devices and OS versions.





Interactive ads that allow users to experience a snippet of an app or game before downloading it. These ads provide a hands-on preview, engaging users by letting them interact directly with the content. Playables are highly effective in driving high-quality installs, as users can try the app or game and decide if they enjoy it before committing to a download.


A server-to-server notification that confirms a user action, such as an app install or purchase, used for tracking and attribution purposes. Postbacks help advertisers and developers accurately measure the effectiveness of their campaigns by providing real-time data on user activities.

Predictive Analytics

Using historical data, statistical algorithms, and machine learning techniques to identify the likelihood of future outcomes based on past data. This approach helps businesses anticipate user behavior, optimize marketing strategies, and improve decision-making. For example, an e-commerce app might use predictive analytics to forecast which products are likely to be popular during the holiday season, allowing the app to adjust inventory and marketing efforts accordingly.

Pre-Roll Ad

A video ad that plays before the main content on a video platform or streaming service. Pre-roll ads typically offer high visibility and engagement, as users must watch the ad before accessing the desired content. For example, a pre-roll ad might play before a YouTube video, capturing the viewer’s attention before they watch their selected content.

Privacy Sandbox

A set of proposals and technologies developed by Google aimed at improving user privacy on the web while still allowing advertisers to target and measure their campaigns. Privacy Sandbox initiatives include phasing out third-party cookies and introducing new APIs to support ad targeting and conversion tracking in a privacy-preserving manner.

Programmatic Advertising

The automated buying and selling of ad space using algorithms and real-time bidding. This method allows for more efficient, scalable, and targeted ad campaigns by automating the decision-making process and optimizing ad placements in real-time based on data.


An app or website that displays ads to its users. Publishers can monetize their content by selling ad space to advertisers. In some cases, publishers also act as advertisers, promoting their own apps or services through the ad space they manage.

Publisher Waterfall

prioritization method used by publishers to manage multiple ad networks and demand sources. The publisher waterfall sets a hierarchy for ad serving, starting with the highest-paying networks and moving down the list to maximize ad revenue. For example, a publisher might first offer inventory to premium ad networks and then fill any remaining impressions with lower-paying networks.




Ranking Algorithm

A set of rules and calculations used to determine the order of apps in search results and charts within app stores. These algorithms consider factors such as download volume, user ratings, reviews, and engagement metrics to rank apps and improve their visibility to potential users.


Campaigns aimed at bringing back users who have previously interacted with an app but have become inactive. Re-engagement strategies often involve targeted ads, push notifications, or special offers to encourage users to return and continue using the app.

Referral Traffic

Visitors who arrive at an app or website through a link from another site or app. Referral traffic can come from various sources, including social media, blogs, and affiliate websites, and is an important metric for measuring the effectiveness of partnerships and content marketing. For example, a fashion blog might drive referral traffic to an e-commerce app by linking to products in its posts.

Retention Rate

The percentage of users who continue using an app over a specific period, typically measured at intervals like day 1, day 7, and day 30 post-install. For example, if 1,000 users install an app and 200 are still active after 30 days, the D30 retention rate is 20% (200 / 1,000). High retention rates indicate user satisfaction and app value.


Showing ads to users who have previously visited a website or used an app, encouraging them to return and complete desired actions. Retargeting leverages cookies and user data to display relevant ads to users who have shown interest but have not yet converted.

ROAS — Return on Advertising Spend

A metric that measures the revenue generated from an ad campaign compared to the amount spent. It is calculated by dividing total revenue by total ad spend. For example, if an ad campaign generates $5,000 in revenue from a $1,000 ad spend, the ROAS is 5 ($5,000 / $1,000), indicating that the campaign earned five times the amount spent.

ROI — Return on Investment

A metric that measures the profitability of an investmentcalculated as the net gain from the investment divided by the cost of the investment. For example, if a campaign costs $1,000 and generates $1,500 in profit, the ROI is 50% (($1,500 – $1,000) / $1,000). ROI helps assess the efficiency and success of marketing efforts.

RPM — Revenue Per Mille

A metric that measures the revenue generated per 1,000 impressions. RPM is calculated by dividing the total revenue by the number of impressions in thousands, providing insights into the monetization efficiency of an app or website. For example, if a website generates $5,000 from 1,000,000 impressions, the RPM is $5 ($5,000/1,000).

RTB — Real-Time Bidding

A method of buying and selling online ad impressions through real-time auctions that occur when it takes a webpage to load. RTB allows advertisers to bid on individual ad impressions, enabling precise targeting and cost-effective ad placements based on user data and campaign goals.




SAN — Self-Attributed Network
A type of advertising network that attributes app installs and user actions to its ads using its own data and reporting mechanisms. SANs bypass traditional third-party attribution methods and are common among major platforms like Facebook, Google, and Apple Search Ads, which provide their own tracking and analytics.

SDK — Software Development Kit

A collection of software tools, libraries, and documentation that developers use to build and integrate features into their apps. SDKs streamline the development process by providing pre-built components and functionalities. Examples include analytics SDKs (e.g., Google Analytics), ad network SDKs (e.g., AdMob), and attribution SDKs (e.g., Adjust).

Second-Party Data

Data that is shared between two parties, typically a trusted partner or a direct data exchange. Second-party data is often more reliable and relevant than third-party data, as it comes directly from the source and is used to enhance targeting and personalization. For example, a travel app might share user data with a hotel booking platform to create more personalized offers.

Session Depth

The number of interactions or events a user performs within a single session. Session depth provides insights into user engagement and the quality of user interactions with the app. For example, a news app might track session depth by counting the number of articles a user reads in one session.

Session Length

The duration of time a user spends in a single session within an app. Session length is an important metric for understanding user engagement and the app’s ability to retain attention. For example, a streaming app might measure session length to determine how long users are watching videos in each session.

SKAdNetwork (SKAN)

Apple’s framework for privacy-preserving mobile app install attribution. SKAdNetwork helps advertisers measure the success of their campaigns without relying on user-level data. It provides aggregated data on app installs, ensuring user privacy while allowing marketers to track and optimize their advertising efforts.

SSP — Supply-Side Platform

A platform that helps publishers manage and sell their ad inventory programmatically. SSPs connect to multiple ad exchanges and demand-side platforms (DSPs), enabling publishers to maximize their ad revenue by making their inventory available to a broader range of advertisers in real-time.

Sustained Acquisition

A strategy that aims to continuously acquire new users over time by consistently optimizing campaigns and refreshing ad creatives. This approach focuses on maintaining a steady flow of new users rather than relying on short-term spikes, ensuring long-term growth and stability for the app.

Supply Path Optimization (SPO)

The process of improving the efficiency and transparency of the supply chain in programmatic advertising. SPO involves evaluating and selecting the best paths to purchase ad inventory, reducing costs, and minimizing fraud. For example, an advertiser might use SPO to identify the most cost-effective and direct routes to buy impressions from trusted publishers.


Target Cost-Per-Install (tCPI)

A pricing model where advertisers set a target cost they are willing to pay for each app install, and the ad network optimizes to achieve this target. For example, if an advertiser sets a tCPI of $3, the network will aim to deliver installs at or below this cost.

Third-Party Data

Data collected by entities other than the advertiser, typically from external sources. This data is often used to supplement first-party data and enhance targeting capabilities by providing additional insights into user behavior, demographics, and preferences. Third-party data can help advertisers refine their audience segmentation, improve ad targeting, and achieve better campaign performance. Examples of third-party data sources include data brokers, market research firms, and social media platforms.

True View

type of video ad format on platforms like YouTube, where advertisers only pay when users watch the ad for a certain duration or engage with it. TrueView ads can include skippable in-stream ads and discovery ads. For example, an advertiser might run a TrueView campaign where they only pay if a user watches the ad for at least 30 seconds.




UA — User Acquisition

User acquisition is the process of attracting and acquiring new users for an app through various marketing strategies and channels. Effective UA strategies involve optimizing ad campaigns, leveraging social media, influencer partnerships, and other methods to drive downloads and grow the user base.

UDID — Unique Device Identifier

unique 40-digit alphanumeric code assigned to each iOS device, historically used for tracking and identifying purposes. UDIDs were widely used by app developers and advertisers to track user activity across apps. However, due to privacy concerns, Apple deprecated UDIDs in favor of more privacy-friendly identifiers like the IDFA (Identifier for Advertisers), which itself is being phased out in favor of Apple’s SKAdNetwork for privacy-preserving attribution.

UGC — User-Generated Content

User-generated content (UGC) refers to any content—such as reviews, testimonials, photos, videos, and social media posts—that is created and shared by users rather than the brand itself. UGC is valuable for brands as it provides authentic, relatable content that can enhance credibility and engagement. For instance, a fitness app might encourage users to share their workout photos and success stories, which can then be featured on the app’s social media channels, showcasing real user experiences and results.

UI — User Interface

The set of controls and elements through which a user interacts with an app. Good UI design aims to provide an intuitive, visually appealing, and efficient user experience, ensuring that users can navigate the app easily and perform desired actions without frustration.

User-Level Data

Detailed data that tracks individual user behavior and interactions with an app or website. User-level data is used for personalized marketing, detailed analytics, and understanding specific user journeys. For example, tracking user-level data can help an app identify which features are most popular among different user segments.

UX — User Experience

The overall experience a user has with an app, encompassing aspects such as usability, accessibility, and design. A positive UX leads to higher user satisfaction, better engagement, and increased retention rates. UX design focuses on creating a seamless, enjoyable, and effective interaction between the user and the app.





A metric that measures whether an ad was actually seen by a user. For an ad to be considered viewable, a certain percentage of it must be visible on the screen for a specified duration. For example, an ad might be considered viewable if 50% of it is in view for at least one second.

View-Through Attribution (VTA)

A method of attributing a conversion to an ad impression, even if the user did not click on the ad. This recognizes the impact of display and video ads on user behavior, as users might see an ad and later take action without directly interacting with the ad. VTA helps in understanding the broader influence of ad campaigns on user conversions.

View-Through Conversion (VTC)

A conversion that occurs after a user sees an ad but does not click on it. View-through conversions recognize the influence of display and video ads on user behavior, even if the user converts through a different channel. For example, a user might see a display ad for a product, not click on it, but later visit the website directly and make a purchase.

VTR — View-Through Rate

The percentage of viewers who watched an entire video ad out of the total number of impressions. This metric helps assess the effectiveness of video ad campaigns by indicating how engaging and compelling the ad content is. For example, if 1,000 users see a video ad and 600 watch it to completion, the VTR is 60% (600 / 1,000). A higher VTR suggests better engagement and ad performance.




Waterfall Model

A traditional method of ad serving where ad networks are prioritized in a sequential order. The highest-priority network is given the first opportunity to fill an ad request, followed by the next in line if the first network cannot fill it. For example, a publisher might use a waterfall model to serve ads, starting with premium networks and moving down to lower-tier networks.

Walled Garden

A walled garden is an ad platform that operates within a closed ecosystem. It controls all aspects of the ad process, from buying to serving to tracking and reporting, and uses its own first-party data exclusively. Examples of walled gardens include platforms like Google, Facebook, and Amazon, which provide significant reach but limit data sharing outside their ecosystems.

WiFi Targeting

An advertising technique that targets users based on their WiFi connection. This method can deliver more relevant ads depending on whether the user is connected to a specific type of WiFi network, such as public WiFi, home WiFi, or even specific locations like cafes or airports. WiFi targeting can improve ad relevance and performance by leveraging contextual information about the user’s connection environment.




Yield Optimization

The practice of maximizing the revenue generated from an app’s ad inventory. This involves analyzing demand, adjusting pricing strategies, and optimizing inventory allocation to ensure the highest possible revenue. Yield optimization uses data analytics and machine learning to refine and improve ad performance and revenue continuously. For example, a news app might use yield optimization to dynamically adjust ad prices based on peak usage times, ensuring premium ad slots are sold at higher rates when user engagement is highest. This strategy helps maximize ad revenue by leveraging real-time data and demand trends.




Zero-Party Data

Information that customers intentionally and proactively share with a brand. This data is collected directly from users and includes their preferences, purchase intentions, personal contexts, and how they want the brand to interact with them. Zero-party data is highly valuable because it is voluntarily provided by customers, ensuring accuracy and relevance. For example, a user might fill out a preference center on a retail website indicating their favorite product categories, preferred communication channels, and frequency of updates. This information allows the brand to personalize marketing efforts and enhance customer experience.

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